Exploring the Different Kinds of Springs and Their Production Processes(strength vs stiffness Penny)

  • Time:
  • Click:7
  • source:TAMIKO CNC Machining


Springs are essential mechanical components that play a crucial role in various industries. From manufacturing to automotive, springs provide necessary tension or extension force required for smooth operation. In this article, we will delve into the world of springs, exploring their diverse types and outlining the processes involved in producing these indispensable components.

Types of Springs

1. Compression Springs
Compression springs are designed to resist compression forces when squeezed together. They store potential energy and release it upon decompression. These versatile springs find applications in various industries, including automotive suspensions, valves, and electrical switches.

2. Extension Springs
Extension springs, also known as tensile springs, generate force when stretched apart. Widely used in trampolines, garage doors, and industrial equipment, they aim to absorb and distribute weight evenly during extension.

3. Torsion Springs
Torsion springs operate by twisting or rotating about an axis, exerting torque. Commonly found in clothespins, mouse traps, and door hinges, torsion springs offer resistance against rotational movement.

4. Constant Force Springs
Constant force springs provide continuous force over a long distance. With their ability to maintain constant tension, they find application in retractable tape measures, window shades, and other systems requiring repeatable linear motion.

5. Belleville Washers
Belleville washers, although not strictly classified under springs, exhibit spring-like characteristics when compressed. Often used as spring supports or as part of bolted assemblies, they help prevent loosening due to vibrations and maintain consistent pressure.

6. Wave Springs
Wave springs consist of multiple wave-like curves which generate force when compressed. By reducing spring height and maintaining load-bearing capabilities, they allow for compact designs and increased reliability in various applications such as seals, pumps, and clutches.

Production Process

The production process for springs is largely dependent on the type and specifications required. However, some general steps are followed in CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining to produce high-quality springs:

1. Material Selection
Based on the specific application and desired properties, materials such as steel alloys, stainless steel, or non-ferrous alloys like bronze or titanium are chosen. Factors considered include corrosion resistance, durability, temperature tolerance, and load-bearing capacity.

2. Design and Development
Using computer-aided design (CAD) software, engineers create detailed designs of the spring, considering parameters like dimensions, wire diameter, number of coils, pitch, and end configurations. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is often utilized to simulate forces and optimize performance.

3. Wire Preparation
The production process begins with straightening and cutting the selected wire material into specific lengths suitable for manufacturing the desired spring type.

4. Spring Coiling
Computer-controlled coiling machines accurately shape the wire according to the specified design. The wire is fed into the machine, which rotates it around mandrels, forming the desired coil shape.

5. Heat Treatment
To enhance the mechanical properties and ensure proper spring action, heat treatment processes like stress relieving, tempering, annealing, or quenching may be employed. This step imparts strength, elasticity, and resistance against fatigue.

6. Surface Finishing
Depending on the application requirements, various surface finishing techniques can be applied, including shot peening, electroplating, powder coating, or passivation, to enhance corrosion resistance, improve aesthetics, and increase longevity.

7. Quality Control and Inspection
After completion, springs undergo stringent quality control checks using measurement tools such as calipers, micrometers, and tension testers. These inspections ensure dimensional accuracy, resilience, and overall compliance with standards before the products are delivered to customers.


Springs are vital components that enable smooth functioning across numerous industries. By understanding the different types of springs and the intricate CNC machining production processes involved, we gain insight into their importance and diverse applications. Whether it's compression springs providing resilience in automotive suspensions or extension springs supporting garage doors, these small but mighty components continue to prove indispensable in various mechanical systems. CNC Milling CNC Machining