Cutting of technology of advanced cutting tool and aviation spare parts is machined

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What the development of cutting tool material and its coating technology promoted rate of cutting tool cutting is ceaseless rise, brought those who machine efficiency to change, brought size range of pipe bent further extend. The function of the design of cutting tool and material of cutting tool of Lv of use take an examination and workpiece material matchs a gender, decide reasonable cutting tool material and configuration in the light of different workpiece material and treatment condition. Cutting tool of requirement of treatment of cutting of high speed, efficient, high accuracy has a variety of superior performance, "Matrix of tall tenacity high strenth + tall hardness is tall wearability blade ministry " the main development direction that is prospective cutting tool. Aviation production domain is one of industries with advanced technique concentrated height all the time, basically be the component appearance because of aviation product and structure complex, material requirement of precision of varied, treatment is strict. The complexity that aviation product part creates basically reflects in: (1) contain the Bao Bi with structure of reinforcement of stagger of complex academic appearance curved surface, freely, lesser ply normally the structure; (2) hardware data is given priority to with structure of alloy of high strenth aluminium alloy, titanium, high temperature alloy, stainless steel, composite material, beehive, material of most and embarrassed treatment; (3) modern plane has macrobian life, high reliability to ask, this makes the quality control requirement of spare parts surface more strict; (4) use integral structure design increasingly, the overall dimension of the spare parts is bigger and bigger also. The design function that is contented aviation product and use requirement, the production of component often uses a variety of craft methods, if cutting treatment, electric physics treatment, electrochemistry is machined, bundle shed treatment, nicety to cast reach nicety to forging etc, among them cutting treatment is remained make domain application in aviation at present most, use the widest treatment method. In modern plane and engine advocate bear in force structure, the proportion that integral structural member holds increases quickly, this kind of spare parts introduces integral semifinished product normally (plank or forging) undertake cutting is machined, the 10% ~ that the weight of part finished product has semifinished product only 20% , 90% material became the 80% ~ of the others to cut bits. Leaf of the compressor fan of the bridge of plane airframe, casing, costal region, wainscot and engine, whole dish the crucial part that etc is engine of modern plane, aviation, use data involves alloy of excel in aluminium alloy, titanium, high temperature alloy, composite material to wait, give priority to with integral structure mostly, purify of complex, material estimates the construction big, precision and exterior quality demand are high, treatment is periodic and longer. Efficient to coming true, accurate treatment is having the cutting treatment process of these spare partses pressing demand. Cutting machines one of main technique measures that are spare parts treatment all the time, although the progress as science and technology and development, new treatment method is continuous emerge in large numbers and received increasingly wide application, but cutting treatment is remained application is at present most, use most extensive treatment method, to dimension and appearance cooperate precision to ask to exceed tall part, need to use cutting process instrumentation to finish more, still do not have better treatment method up to now [1] . Cutting cutting tool is the crucial factor that prop up and promotes progress of cutting processing technique. In recent years, high speed is efficient the wide application of numerical control machine tool makes contemporary cutting processing technique developed a new level, the application of advanced and efficient cutting tool is to make costly numerical control machine tool develops his adequately one of basic premise of efficient process capability. The applied foundation of cutting cutting tool makes a technology is to accompany what the mankind develops civilizedly and advance all the time. 18 centuries later period, the occurrence mark of the machine tool that has mobile tool carrier and guide wears what machining produces an age to begin. As 19 centuries the invention of new-style smelt technology, internal-combustion engine technology, electric technology and perfect, and mass production means and peaceful strap H · Ford to manage theory scientificly appear, mechanical manufacturing industry begins to enter large quantities of quantities to produce an age. Cutting treatment is contemporary one of the basiccest treatment methods in production technology, it is to use cutting tool (or tool) purify is machined the redundant material on the object, get appearance, precision and exterior quality accord with the surface that books a requirement thereby. In the cutting treatment machining complex that comprising by machine tool, cutting tool, workpiece and clamping apparatus, cutting tool is to abound the change, active ingredient that affects treatment position. The choice of cutting tool material and development are the process of implementation cutting treatment, key that drives progress of cutting processing technique. Human use tool begins from natural material, through the development of times of Stone Age, the Bronze Age, ironware, cutting of preparation of bone of stone of course of preparative cutting tool, animal, bronze / cut tool, develop the tool steel, high-speed steel, hard alloy, pottery and porcelain, advanced cutting cutting tool that exceeds hard alloy to be made, also be developed from the natural material such as bone of stone, lumber, animal by treatment material the different type such as alloy of copper, iron, steel, of all kinds metal, metalloid material, had formed material of material of metallic stuff, pottery and porcelain, organic high polymer to now " 3 sufficient tripartite balance of forces " new phase, and the multinomial solid data that the corporeal union that differs on physics and chemistry by 2 kinds of above rises and gets -- a composite material is contemporary material revolution important way [2] , need cutting processing technique as much in component part production process. The actor bad of cutting tool function depends on the material that makes cutting tool and structure. The cutting function of cutting tool material must satisfy the following and basic requirement: (1) hardness. Cutting tool material must the hardness of material of prep above workpiece, hardness of normal temperature of material of contemporary cutting tool asks to be in normally HRC60 above. (2) intensity and tenacity. Higher intensity can bear greater cutting power, better tenacity can bear bigger concussion load and vibration. (3) wearability. Cutting tool material should have better counteractive tatty capacity, it is strength of cutting tool data, hardness and the comprehensive report that organize the element such as the structure. (4) hot rigid. Cutting tool retains material hardness, intensity, tenacity and the ability that fight oxidation below high temperature [3] . All sorts of different cutting tool material can fall in constant temperature limits only manage its cutting property, if the main function of material of common cutting tool and regular job temperature express 1 to show. In process of treatment of Nextpage   cutting, blade of cutting tool cutting should bear rate of tall cutting temperature, high intensity of pressure, tall meet an emergency, this should have taller high temperature hardness and wear-resisting property already with respect to requirement cutting tool, want to have higher intensity and tenacity again, these integral performance that process pair of cutting tool data to satisfy cutting ask and development rises technology of cutting tool coating and technology of cutting tool finishing. Coating cutting tool is to use physics or chemical method, one is enclothed on cutting tool base material or multilayer the coating material of caustic of high temperature resistant, wear-resisting, make cutting tool has coriaceous matrix already, have the face of tall hardness, tall wearability again. Material of basic cutting tool coating can be divided the coating that it is sheet, multivariate coating, soft coating [4] , if common coating material property and applied limits express 2 to show. Onefold coating has certain limitation in application, and much coating structure is used in contemporary coating cutting tool more extensive, multilayer the constituent composition that coating improves coating effectively, raise the performance characteristics of cutting tool. As a result of coating material be able to bear or endure caustic of frit knot, wear-resisting and matrix of heat-resisting function excel, can undertake cutting in order to exceed the cutting rate of base material accordingly. In addition, because the coefficient of friction of coating is small, can prolong the service life of cutting tool consequently. The data that the part of product of aviation of applied current situation of the cutting tool in treatment of cutting of aviation spare parts uses basically involves a variety of kinds such as alloy of excel in steel, aluminium alloy, titanium, high temperature alloy, composite material. The part that cutting treatment involves on plane airframe basically uses the data such as alloy of aluminium alloy, titanium, composite material, high strenth steel, its structure size is large, dimension coordinates place much; The part that cutting treatment involves on aviation engine basically uses titanium alloy, high temperature alloy, stainless steel, composite material, demand of its treatment precision is higher. From treatment formally looks, plane airframe structural member is typical delegate with costal region of casing of wing bridge, airframe, ala, wainscot, spare parts form is flat look structure, size is larger, contain external form of theory of airframe, wing. This kind of spare parts basically is given priority to with milling treatment, the milling cutting tool that uses different form completes treatment on the CNC Milling in linkage of dragon door structure, 5 axes, commonly used cutting tool has Pan Xi knife, establish milling cutter of head of milling cutter, ball to wait, more commonly used is the special milling cutter that contains round part of point of a knife; Aviation engine spare parts with leaf of casing, whole dish, blade and axis, dish represent for the model, remove a rod, dish kind of spare parts outside suiting to use turning to machine, other part is circumgyrate shape structure, partial place needs turning to machine, the position that involves installation and air current passageway for the most part still needs the numerical control machine tool in structure of control of 5 coordinate linkage, revolving stage treatment of aspirant travel milling, treatment process needs the cutting tool of a variety of forms and structure, lathe tool of the circle outside be like, inside round lathe tool, establish milling cutter, ball head milling cutter to wait. In process of spare parts treatment, the cutting tool that mount a tooth-like part of anything, solder type cutting tool, whole cutting tool has wide application, in recent years, the cutting tool that mount a tooth-like part of anything, whole cutting tool makes the cutting tool structure that the spot basically uses gradually, solder limits of application of type cutting tool already narrowed gradually. These cutting tool basically originate 3 ways: Professional manufacturer of self-restrained, home mixes the enterprise foreign tool supplier, among them high-grade cutting tool basically is given priority to with the product of foreign tool manufacturer, the main problem of homebred cutting tool is production precision technology of inferior, finishing still is put in quality of difference, cutting tool to be stabilized not quite, the precision of each batch cutting tool and life sometimes abhorrent, bring about manufacturing site to stabilize control spare parts to machine the consistency of precision hard thereby. High speed treatment has been entered practical change level, plane structural member is the main field that uses high speed treatment, apply in the cutting of component of aluminium alloy structural member, composite material especially extensive. Current, speed of cutting of aluminium alloy material already achieved top speed of 1500 ~ 5500m/min(to be 5000 ~ 7500m/min) , cast-iron finish machining and semifinishing machining speed are 500 ~ 1500m/min, casting pig of mill of essence of life is highest can amount to 2000m/min, common steel is 300 ~ 800m/min, hard steel of temper by dipping in water (speed of HRC45 ~ 65) is 100 ~ 500m/min[5] . The 5 ~ that the cutting speed that high speed machines is groovy cutting 10 times, stability of the security of cutting tool, high temperature, dynamic balancing already became high speed to machine the key of cutting tool. Current, the rotate speed of main shaft of equipment of high speed milling that spot of treatment of cutting of aviation spare parts deploys has achieved 24000r/min, use high speed cutting machines cutting tool to basically be given priority to with foreign brand, speed of cutting of aluminium alloy spare parts has achieved 1300m/min above. The cutting tool that uses in treatment of high speed milling basically is to set tine, whole the hard alloy cutting tool of 2 kinds of structures, new-style exceed hard data (apply like cutting tool of PCD, PCBN) less. The treatment of aviation product part needs to use an amount to differ normally, the cutting tool ability with norms and different structure is finished, between the surface that and the requirement differs cutting tool machines successive, without receive experience of poor, have nothing to do with. Below most circumstance, the application of cutting tool of the cutting in producing the spot still basically is extensive model, installation of the error receiving a knife of cutting tool of the influence of precision, thick to treatment to cutting blade appearance finish machining, cutting tool adjusts the problem such as precision to lack analysis of meticulous, thorough ground and control, the measure that basically adopts pair of Dao Yi, machine tool to go up to be worth length of the diameter that acquires cutting tool, installation, crucial position to knife and nominal dimension (be like) of round horn of point of a knife. The crucial dimension between different cutting tool is put in 0 at least.

The error of 05mm above (set) of tine cutting tool especially, this makes the remain of workpiece surface existence that treatment comes out, step and injury, the artificial nap that must rely on sequel and polish undertake handling. Look from cutting parameter respect, because each produce the technical level of the spot and environment of form a complete set to differ, the cutting parameter difference that uses when cutting tool cutting is bigger, choose and use of cutting parameter basically give priority to with the experience of technologist or machine tool handlers. The cutting speed of aluminium alloy material is between 200 ~ 2000m/min, the purify rate of unit time stuff differs for 10 ~ 30kg/h; Speed of cutting of titanium alloy material is between 9 ~ 50m/min, the purify rate of unit time stuff does not exceed 1 ~ 2kg/h commonly. Look from respect of cutting tool life, manufacturing site basically does not have strict control, basically be decide by experience by handlers the usable condition of cutting tool, this also is one of causes that cause workpiece to machine exterior quality to be not stabilized. As function of plane product flight rise, the requirement that people machines precision to contemporary aviation spare parts is progressively also and strict, the precision error of complex form face from inchoate ± (0.

15 ~ 0.

3) Mm has raised ± (0.

08 ~ 0.

12) Mm, exterior surface roughness from Ra6.

4 ~ Ra1.

6 raise Ra1.

6 ~ Ra0.

8. The precision that raising cutting tool precision, logical choice to use cutting tool is contented spare parts and the important segment that exterior quality asks. The development trend from new-style plane and engine sees the cutting treatment characteristic of Nextpage   new material, new structure and cutting tool demand, be based on drop the plane airframe and engine weight, consideration that raises flight function, economic fuel to use up, the method that the combined-type metal structure that a large number of in the past adoption, aluminium alloy covers directly already was abandoned gradually, the proportion that titanium alloy, composite material uses is larger and larger, integral structure makes the principal part of plane and engine product. Titanium alloy is one of accepted difficult treatment material, need issues ability to satisfy quality and periodic requirement in the support of high-powered cutting tool; Use a shop to fold, twine, although the composite material component of the craft preparation such as RTM does not need very big cutting to process a volume, but the characteristic of its material composition and higher quality demand also have higher demand to cutting cutting tool; After using integral structure to design, choose integral plank or big swaged forging to build semifinished product to machine usually, among them the material of 90% above should be excised, treatment amount is larger, extremely tall to machining efficiency to ask. Aviation engine spare parts is material of titanium alloy, high temperature alloy normally, the cutting treatment of these material is a difficulty all the time. In the meantime, appearance of aviation engine spare parts requirement of complex, precision is strict. The main construction part with new-style engine -- whole Xie Panwei exemple, cutting treatment process involves body of air current passageway, leaf face, Xiegenxie it is pointed, difficult to wait into exhaust edge treatment place, milling is the main technique that completes these crucial position treatment, because structural space is cramped, want those who use small diameter, big length to establish milling cutter of milling cutter or ball head normally. The main characteristic that cutting of aviation engine spare parts machines is: (1) be out of shape succumb by treatment material the limit is tall, cutting is out of shape fight muscularity, bring about power of cutting muscularity, cutting tall, cutting tool bears greater cutting power and torque, requirement cutting tool is had relatively high strenth hardness and wear-resisting function, function of cutting tool cutting and geometrical figure can be kept well in machining a process; (2) wave motion of force of the cutting in cutting process is big, cutting tool bears periodic load action, produce blade ministry breach or collapse blade easily, the tenacity with ask cutting tool is had better has decrease brace up or disappear brace up measure; (3) cutting area temperature is high, heat in metal cutting is centered at point of a knife around (especially titanium alloy workpiece machines) , cutting tool bears faster hot load action, knot of easy generation frit and oxidation bring about cutting tool invalidation, ministry of blade of requirement cutting tool has taller stable cutting property. Material of plane structural member normally with structure of alloy of aluminium alloy, titanium, beehive (aluminium or NOMEX) and composite material are given priority to, still have a few stainless steel and steel of extra high strength. Among them amount of treatment of cutting of spare parts of alloy of aluminium alloy, titanium is very large (about 90% material of 80% ~ are excised) , capacity of treatment of cutting of composite material component is opposite less, but the matrix that easy generation is torn off in treatment and come off between the layer and injures composite material member. Plane structural member is thin wall structure normally, ply of structure of aluminium alloy structural member is the smallest can amount to 0.

8 ~ 2mm; Titanium alloy is restricted characteristicly as a result of material, its are the smallest the ply of the least texture that structural ply wants to be more than aluminium alloy structural member. Plane structural member is given priority to with milling treatment, its cutting treatment basically has the following characteristic: (1) the data of aluminium alloy and beehive structure yields intensity is inferior, the cutting power that cutting process produces is little, suit to use high speed to machine a method, the main demand that asks cutting tool satisfies high speed cutting (if sex of hear resistance, heatproof concussion, high temperature is mechanical) of function, dependability; (2) composite material is matrix photograph and the material that enhance photograph composition, mechanical function has anisotropy, cutting tool drawing, cut and material is excised below screwy combined action, face of the knife after fiber section and cutting tool is put in intense friction, treatment precision and exterior surface roughness achieve design requirement not easily; (3) the corner with the more existence on the spare parts and intermediate zone region, these place should join with avoiding stress is centered glossily, the detail structure of requirement cutting tool (like round horn of point of a knife) size is exact keep figure in cutting process changeless; (4) material excision amount is large, handling time of labor situation working procedure is long, requirement cutting tool has taller life, avoid to change a knife often and cause precision loss and auxiliary time to increase; (5) more groovy antrum, cave in is had on the spare parts, shut the structure such as bevel angle, want to make axial of cutting tool edge cuts perpendicular even feed occasionally in milling treatment process, this has cutting capacity with respect to bottom of requirement cutting tool. The cutting of aviation spare parts machines current and main component to be 2 types: It is the high speed treatment of light simple structure and light alloy, basically be aimed at aluminium alloy and composite material, use cutting tool is given priority to with material of hard alloy, PCD, contain only coat or compound coating; 2 it is the cutting that waits for difficult treatment material in the light of steel of titanium alloy, stainless steel, extra high strength, use cutting tool data basically is fine grain hard alloy, exceed fine grain hard alloy and high-powered high-speed steel, should special attention cutting tool material (include its coat) with workpiece material match, carry out a proof, in treatment of titanium alloy cutting, groovy coating does not have apparent effect to increasing respect of cutting tool function, must seek new coat and coating technology. Express the different workpiece material is applicable 3 cutting tool in giving out to show cutting of part of level aviation product to machine and coating. The develops trend cutting to machine pursuit target of prospective cutting tool is environmental protection of high accuracy, efficient, low cost, green. In recent years, cutting processing technique lubricates in high speed cutting, strong voice cutting, small mist the domain such as cutting, dry type cutting, compound cutting develops quickly, these cutting processing technique are to realize the core of the producer form that with minimal production facilities efficient, low cost processes a spare parts, so far, the biggest mark that cutting processing technique expands is treatment of high speed cutting (High Speed Cutting, HSC) develop. The foundation that advanced cutting tool technology is development of stimulative cutting technology and assure, the development of cutting tool technology involves the development of cutting tool material and cutting tool structure, cutting tool material is the foundation that promotes cutting tool property, cutting tool structure is the key that raises workpiece to machine precision. The progress as processing technique of high speed treatment, high accuracy and difficult treatment material apply quantitative addition, the progress of cutting tool material is very striking also, the hard alloy of new-style pottery and porcelain, fine grain, performance that exceeds fund of fine grain hard alloy, TiC/TiN to belonged to the material such as hard alloy of pottery and porcelain, coating to promote cutting tool greatly, the wearability of cutting tool matrix, hear resistance, tenacity and bending strength rise apparently. Compound coating technology makes cutting tool function promotes further, coating material besides have the TiC that suits high speed cutting, TiN, TiAlN beyond, still use diamond, cubic nitrogen to change coating of rice of accept of boracic, silicon radical to wait now. In recent years, technology of coating of the people application in material of new-style cutting tool, cutting tool and side of performance of cutting of new-style cutting tool undertook much research and application work, the cutting tool that manufacturing site uses had been entered it is mature to give priority to a variety of body, coatings with hard alloy material applied condition, the development trend with main material of prospective cutting tool is " the base material of fine grain + compound coating " , in order to get used to the main demand that high speed cutting, dry type cutting, high accuracy machines. Cutting treatment precision and exterior quality are the crucial factor of cutting treatment process, treatment precision and exterior quality depend on the blade form of cutting tool, function that break bits and the stability that install a structure. The design of prospective cutting tool must pay attention to fixed position of design of blade design, the chamfer that break bits, razor blade or knife handle clip to hold design and exterior coating and point aggrandizement processing. To reduce the applied cost of cutting tool, structure of the structure that mount a tooth-like part of anything, Fu of mosaic structure, besmear should make structure of cutting tool main body, integral structure just is used in small norms, miniature norms. Prospective cutting tool should be double performance structure, namely " matrix of tall tenacity high strenth + tall hardness is tall wearability blade ministry " . What the development of material of last word cutting tool and its coating technology promoted rate of cutting tool cutting is ceaseless rise, brought those who machine efficiency to change, brought size range of pipe bent further extend. The function of the design of cutting tool and material of cutting tool of Lv of use take an examination and workpiece material matchs a gender, decide reasonable cutting tool material and configuration in the light of different workpiece material and treatment condition. Cutting tool of requirement of treatment of cutting of high speed, efficient, high accuracy has a variety of superior performance, "Matrix of tall tenacity high strenth + tall hardness is tall wearability blade ministry " the main development direction that is prospective cutting tool. CNC Milling CNC Machining